Integration of diverse cultures

With the continuous increase of both local and foreign residents, Kulangsu began to face great pressure from infrastructure construction and maintenance as well as security management. On the other hand, the increasingly rising Japan had been seeking for more benefits from Kulangsu, while other powers hoped that there would be a reasonable mode to maintain the balance. In 1902, related Chinese and foreign stakeholders signed the Land Regulations for the Settlement of Kulangsu, Amoy. In 1903, the Kulangsu Municipal Council was established, and a public settlement management system was established to allow representatives of foreigners and Chinese people at the Kulangsu Island to participate in the management of the international settlement. Since then, Kulangsu had entered the second stage for modernization. Chinese people at the Kulangsu Island to participate in the management of the public settlements. Since then, Kulangsu had entered the second stage of modernization. From 1903, when Kulangsu Municipal Council was established, to 1941, when the Pacific War broke out, Kulangsu experienced a period for in-depth collision, exchange and integration of diversified cultures, and had a peak development. The achievements made during their period composed the major part of the current heritage of settlement culture on the island. During this period, the social life and urban construction of Kulangsu followed the trend for transformation from the mode with Westerners playing a leading role to the one with the returned overseas Chinese playing a leading role. For tens of years before that, a great number of people emigrated from the southern Fujian area to Southeast Asia via the South China Sea. The continuous large-scale immigration promoted the establishment of a composite network consisted of the immigrant network, the business network, the financial network and other networks, forming up a transnational and transboundary social space. Xiamen, where Kulangsu is located, just served as port for such immigration, a consumption market and an investment target. Since Kulangsu then featured relatively stable and relaxed social environment, good settlement services and infrastructure as well as beautiful natural environment, it became the first choice of the returned overseas Chinese. Especially during the period from the 1820s to the 1830s, the social and economic development of Southeast Asia was greatly impacted by the global economic crisis. Then, many Chinese people who used to emigrate from southern Fujian to Southeast Asia returned to Kulangsu. This led to a golden period for the modernization of Kulangsu. During…

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